J. César Félix-Brasdefer

J. César Félix-Brasdefer

Professor, Spanish and Portuguese

Associate Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education

Academic Director, IU Mexico Gateway


  • Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 2002
  • M.A., University of Illinois at Chicago, 1996
  • B.A., Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, México, 1991


  • Second Language Studies
  • Linguistics
  • ACTFL OPI Tester, Spanish with Full Certification

About J. César Félix-Brasdefer

J. César Félix-Brasdefer is Professor of Spanish and Linguistics in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese, and Adjunct Professor in the Departments of Linguistics and Second Language Studies, and in the Cognitive Science Program. My research areas are Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, two disciplines of linguistics that examine pragmatic meaning at the utterance level and beyond the sentence. I teach undergraduate and graduate courses such as Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics, Pragmatics and Sociolinguistics, Discourse Analysis, Pragmatic Variation, Research Methods in Linguistics, Intercultural Pragmatics, and Second Language Pragmatics.

To date, I have published nine books, two special issues, and I have one book under contract with Multilingual Matters Press. I have individually authored three books (Pragmática del español: contexto, uso y variación [Pragmatics of Spanish], Routledge Press, 2019; The Language of Service EncountersCambridge University Press, 2015Politeness in Mexico and the United States, John Benjamins, 2008), each of which has received positive reviews. Additionally, I have edited six volumes, the most recent being Félix-Brasdefer & Shively, New Directions in Second Language Pragmatics (De Gruyter Mouton, 2021). Among other notable contributions are my co-edited volumes The Routledge Handbook of Spanish Pragmatics (Routledge Press, 2021, thirty-three chapters), Pragmatic Variation in Service Encounter Interactions (Routledge Press, 2020), and Pragmatic Variation in First and Second Language Contexts (Jonh Benjamins, 2012). I also edited two volumes for the Pragmatics & Language Learning Series, University of Hawaii at Manoa, volume 14 in 2016 and volume 11 in 2006).

In addition to my books, I have edited a collection of articles on pragmatic variation written by my undergraduate and graduate students in 2015 (Pragmatic Variation) and 2021 (Pragmatic and Intercultural Competence), published as part of the IULC Working Papers in Linguistics. My academic contributions outside these collections and books include numerous peer-reviewed articles published in journals, book chapters, handbook chapters, encyclopedic entries, and conference proceedings. (List of selected publications here)

For an overview of my books/Edited volumes, click here

Professor Félix-Brasdefer's research has focused on the following areas:

Second Language Pragmatics and Instruction of Pragmatics

I have examined this topic in my publications, including chapters in journals, handbooks, and book chapters. This topic is covered in four of my edited volumes, including New Directions in Second Language Pragmatics (2021, De Gruyter Mouton), two volumes of Pragmatics and Language Learning (20062016, University of Manoa Press), and Pragmatic Variation in Second Language Contexts (2012, John Benjamins). I created a companion website that offers theoretical and pedagogical resources to teachers who want to implement online materials in the classroom.

Politeness and Impoliteness

I have researched different aspects of polite and impolite behavior in first and second language contexts. My first publication, Politeness in Mexico and the United States (2008, John Benjamins) includes theoretical and empirical chapters in polite behavior in two sociocultural contexts, Mexico and the United States. I have also investigated polite behavior in the context of service encounter interactions in my book, The Language of Service Encounters (Cambridge University Press, 2015). I have also covered this topic in journal and handbook chapters. One of my chapters, "Politeness Research in the Spanish-Speaking World," is published in my edited volume, The Routledge Handbook of Spanish Pragmatics (Routledge Press, 2021).

Pragmatic Variation and Contrastive Pragmatics

I covered this topic in my book, The Language of Service Encounters (2015, Cambridge University Press) and in several articles in journals, handbooks, and edited volumes. I also edited a book on Pragmatic Variation in Second Encounter Interactions (2020, Routledge Press), including 14 chapters across varieties of Spanish. In addition, I edited a special issue that included 10 publications that my students wrote in my graduate courses in pragmatic variation (Working Papers in Linguistics, 2015). One of my chapters, "Pragmatic variation across varieties of Spanish," is published in my edited volume, The Routledge Handbook of Spanish Pragmatics (Routledge Press, 2021).

Intercultural and Interactional Competence

I have addressed this topic in a special volume that includes 9 publications that my students wrote in my graduate courses in second language pragmatics and intercultural competence (Working Papers in Linguistics, 2021). This topic is also covered in my edited volume New Directions in Second Language Pragmatics (De Gruyter Mouton, 2021). I have also written several journal and book chapters addressing different aspects of intercultural competence.

Research Methods in Linguistics and Pragmatics

I have written several articles in journals, edited books, and handbooks that address different aspects of methods in linguistics and pragmatics research. My 2018 article “Role plays” is included in the Handbook of Methods in Pragmatics (De Gruyter Mouton). In my 2019 book, The Pragmatics of Spanish (Pragmática del español), I included one chapter that describes issues related to the reliability and validity of different methods used to collect natural and elicited data for research purposes. I also address this topic in my 2015 book, The Language of Service Encounters (Cambridge University Press). This topic is also addressed in several chapters of my edited volume, New Directions in Second Language Pragmatics (Mouton de Gruyter, 2021).


  • Hispanic Linguistics
  • Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis
  • Second Language Acquisition (interlanguage pragmatics)
  • Pragmatic Variation in First and Second Language Contexts
  • Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Communication
  • Instruction and Assessment
  • Pragmatic Development in Study Abroad Contexts

Books & Edited volumes

Selected publications

  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2021). Teaching and assessing pragmatic and intercultural competence in foreign language contexts. IU Working Papers in Linguistics, vol. 21(2). [Preface, pp 1-14]
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2021). Pragmatic competence and speech-act research in second language pragmatics. In J. C. Félix-Brasdefer & Rachel L. Shively (Eds.), New Directions in Second Language Pragmatics (pp 11-26). Berlin/Boston, MA, US.  Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & M. DiBartolomeo.  (2021). Developing advanced pragmatic competence in Spanish. In P. Malovh & M. Menke (Eds.), Advancedness in Second Language Spanish: Definitions, Challenges and Possibilities (pp. 323-348). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & R. Márquez Reiter. (2021). Service encounter discourse. In M. Haugh, D. Kádár, & M. Terkourafi (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociopragmatics (pp. 496-519). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. César. (2021). Pragmatic variation across varieties of Spanish. In Dale A. Koike & J. César Félix-Brasdefer (eds.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish pragmatics (pp. 269–287). Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  • Mugford, G., & Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2021). Politeness research in the Spanish-speaking world. In D. Koike & J. C. Félix-Brasdefer (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Spanish Pragmatics (pp. 353-369). Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2020). Pragmatic transfer. In K. P. Schneider & Elly Infantidou (Eds.), Developmental and Clinical Pragmatics (pp. 361-391). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & Yates, A. (2020). Regional pragmatic variation in small shops in Mexico City, Buenos Aires, & Seville, Spain. In Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & M. E. Placencia (eds.), Pragmatic Variation in Service Encounter Interactions across the Spanish-Speaking World (pp. 15-34). Oxford/New York: Routledge Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2020). La comunicación intercultural. In V. Escandell Vidal, Amenós Pons & Ahern (Eds.), Manual de pragmática (pp. 742-755). Barcelona: Akal.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2020). Los rechazos. In M. E. Placencia & Joxé Padilla. (Eds.), Guía práctica de pragmática del español (pp. 18-28). London/New York: Routledge.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2019). Speech acts in interaction: Negotiating joint action in a second language. In N. Taguchi (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Pragmatics (pp. 17-30) London: Routledge.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2019). El componente pragmático. In F. Jiménez Calderón & A. Sánchez Rufat Sánchez (Eds.), Manual de formación para profesores de ELE (pp. 189-209). Madrid: SGEL.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2018). Role plays. In A. Jucker, K. Schneider, & W.Wolfram (Eds.), Methods in Pragmatics. (pp. 305-332). Germany: Mouton De Gruyter.
  • Felix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2017). Service encounters. In B. Vine (ed). The Routledge Handbook of Language in the Workplace (pp. 162-174). Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2017). The intercultural speaker abroad. In R. Giora & M. Haugh (Eds.), Papers in Honor of Istvan Kecskes (pp. 353-370). Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2017). Interlanguage pragmatics. In Y. Huang (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 416-434). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & M. Hasler-Barker. (2017). Elicited data. In A. Barron (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 27-40). Germany: Mouton De Gruyter.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & Mugford, G. (2017): (Im)Politeness: Learning and teaching. In J. Culpeper & M. Haugh (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistics (Im)Politeness (pp. 489-516). Baskingstoke, UK: Palgrave/McMillan.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. & McKinnon, S. (2017). Perceptions of impolite behavior in study abroad contexts and the teaching of impoliteness in L2 Spanish. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching, vol. 3(2), 99-113.
  • Johns, A. & Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2015). Linguistic politeness and pragmatic variation in request production in Dakar French. Journal of Politeness Research.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & Hasler Barker, Maria (2015). Complimenting in Spanish in a short-term study abroad context. System 48, 75-85.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & Koike, D. (2014). Perspectives on Spanish SLA from Pragmatics and Discourse. Handbook of Hispanic Applied Linguistics, Manel Lacorte (ed.) (pp. 25-43). New York: Routledge.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2014). Speech act sequences. Handbook of Pragmatics of Discourse, Vol 3, K. Schneider & A. Barron (eds.) (pp. 323-352). Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2013). Interlanguage pragmatics. Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Edited by C. A. Chapelle. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2013). Refusing in L2 Spanish: The effects of the context of learning during a short-term study abroad program. In O. Martí Andándiz and P. Salazar-Campillo (eds) Refusals in Instructional Contexts and Beyond (147-173). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & . Cohen. (2012). Teaching pragmatics in the foreign language classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource. Hispania 95(4), 650-669.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2012). Pragmatic variation by gender in market service encounters in Mexico. In J. C. Félix-Brasdefer & D. Koike (eds.), Pragmatic Variation in First and Second Language Contexts: Methodological Issues. Series: IMPACT. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2012). E-mail requests to faculty: E-politeness and internal modification. In M. Economidou-Kogetsidis & H. Woodfield (eds.), Interlanguage Request Modification (pp. 87-118). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2012). Openings and closings in FL learner-instructor email consultations. In EvaAlcón Soler & Maria Safont Jordá (eds.), Language Learners’ Discourse across L2 Instructional Settings. (pp. 223-248). New York, NY: Rodopi.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & M. Barker-Hasler. (2012). Compliments and compliment responses: From empirical evidence to pedagogical application. In Maria Leire Ruiz de Zarobe (Ed.), Speech Acts and Politeness across Languages and Cultures (pp. 241-273). Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2012). Actos de habla (“Speech acts”). In S. de los Heros & M. Niño-Murcia (eds.). Fundamentos y modelos del estudio pragmático y sociopragmático del español (pp. 59-81).Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2011). Cortesía, prosodia y variación pragmática en las peticiones de estudiantes universitarios mexicanos y dominicanos [“Politeness, prosody and pragmatic variation in requests from Mexican and Dominican college students”]. In C. García Fernández & Maria Elena Placencia (eds.). Iberoamericana.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2010). Intra-lingual pragmatic variation in Mexico City and San José, Costa Rica: A focus on regional differences in female requests. Journal of Pragmatics 42(11), 2992-3011.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2010). Data collection methods in speech act performance: DCTs, role plays, and verbal reports. In E. Usó Juán and A. Martínez-Flor (eds), Speech act performance: Theoretical, Empirical, and methodological issues (pp. 41-56). John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C., & Bardovi-Harlig, (2010). “I’m sorry. Can I think about it?” The negotiation of refusals in academic and non-academic contexts.In D. Tatsuki & N. Houck (Eds.), Pragmatics: Teaching Speech Acts. (pp. 163-180). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2009). Pragmatic variation across Spanish(es): Requesting in Mexican, Costa Rican, and Dominican Spanish. Intercultural Pragmatics, 6(4), 473-515.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2009). El estado de la cuestión sobre el discurso de la (des)cortesía y la imagen social en México: Perspectivas teóricas y metodológicas [State of the art on the discourse of (im)politeness and face in Mexico: Theoretical and methodological perspectives]. In L. Rodríguez Alfano (ed.), La (des)cortesía y la imagen social en México: Estudios semióticos-discursivos desde varios enfoques analíticos (pp. 15-45). Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2009). Dispreferred responses in interlanguage pragmatics: Refusal sequences in learner-native speaker interactions. Applied Language Learning, Vol. 19 (1-2), 1-27.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. & Lavin, E. (2009).
  • Grammar and turn expansion in second language conversations. In J. Collentine, M. García, B. Lafford, & F. Marcos Marín (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 11th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 53-67). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. (Available online).
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2008). Pedagogical intervention and the development of pragmatic competence in learning Spanish as a foreign language. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 47-82.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2008). Perceptions of refusals to invitations: Exploring the minds of foreign language learners. Language Awareness,17(3), 195-211.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2008). Sociopragmatic variation: Dispreferred responses in Mexican and Dominican Spanish. Journal of Politeness Research, 4(1), 81-110.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2008). Teaching Spanish pragmatics in the classroom: Explicit instruction of mitigation. Hispania, 91(2), 477-492.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2008). Cuando estudie en el extranjero, voy a vivir con una familia hispana. ¿Qué necesito saber sobre la cortesía? [When I study abroad, I will live with a Hispanic family. What do I need to know about politeness?] (pp. 95-107). In J. Ewald and A. Edstrom (Eds.), El español a través de la lingüística: Preguntas y respuestas. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2007). Natural speech vs. elicited data: A comparison of natural and role play requests in Mexican Spanish./Spanish in Context,/ 4(2): 159-185
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2007). Pragmatic development in the Spanish as a FL classroom: A cross-sectional study of learner requests/. Intercultural Pragmatics/, 4:2: 253-286
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Speech act perception in interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring the minds of foreign language learners. /LAUD paper 652/. Duisburg/Essen: Linguistic Agency, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Linguistic politeness in Mexico: Refusal strategies among male speakers of Mexican Spanish. Journal of Pragmatics 38(12): 2158-2187.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Teaching the negotiation of multi-turn speech acts. Using conversation-analytic tools to teach pragmatics in the classroom. In K. Bardovi-Harlig, C. Félix-Brasdefer, & A. Omar (Eds.), Pragmatics and Language Learning, Vol. 11 (pp. 165-197). National Foreign Language Resource Center. University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). The acquisition of functional categories in early Spanish: Evidence from the strong continuity hypothesis. Indiana University on line Working Papers, Vol. 6 (pp. 1-33). Available on line at: https://www.indiana.edu/~iulcwp/contents.cgi?which=6
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Pragmatic and textual functions of o sea: Evidence from MexicanSpanish. In T. Face & C. Klee (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 191-203). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Prpceedings Project. (Available on line at: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/hls/8/index.html)
  • Greenslade, T. & Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Error correction and learner perceptions in L2 Spanish writing. Conference . In C. Klee & T. Face (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 7 th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp. 185-194). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Prpceedings Project. (Available on line at: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/casp/7/index.html)
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2005). Métodos de recolección de actos de habla: Peticiones en el discurso natural y simulado de hablantes mexicanos. In J. Murillo Medrano (ed.), Actas del II Coloquio Internacional del Programa EDICE (pp. 221-245). Estocolmo-Costa Rica: Programa EDICE-Universidad de Costa Rica. ISBN 91-974521-2-2, URN:NBN:se-2006-2. (Available on line at: http://www.edice.org/2coloquio/2coloquioEDICE.pdf)
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2005). Indirectness and politeness in Mexican Requests. In D. Eddington (ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 7th Hispanic Linguistic Symposium (pp. 66-78). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Paper available on-line at http://www.lingref.com/cpp/hls/7/
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2004) Interlanguage Refusals: Linguistic Politeness and Length of Residence in the Target Community. Language Learning, 54(4), 587-653.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2004). La mitigación en el discurso oral de mexicanos y aprendices de español como lengua extranjera. In D. Bravo and A. Briz (Eds.), Pragmática sociocultural. Estudios sobre el discurso en cortesía en español (pp. 285-299). Spain: Ariel.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2003). Validity in data collection methods in pragmatics research. In P. Kempchinsky and C. E. Piñeros (Eds.), Theory, practice, and acquisition. Papers from the 6th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium and the 5th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese (pp. 239-257). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J.C. (2003) Declining an invitation: A Cross-Cultural Study of Pragmatic Strategies in Latin American Spanish and American English. Multilingua, 22(3): 225-255.
Book reviews
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2015). Review of the book Assessing Second Language Pragmatics by S. Ross & G.Kasper. Journal of Pragmatics 84, 83-85.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2015). Review of the book Intercultural Pragmatics by I. Kecskes. Multilingua 34(4), 611-615.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2013). Review of the book The Pragmatics of Requests and Apologies: Developmental Patterns of Mexican Students by E. Flores-Salgado. Intercultural Pragmatics 10(3), 521-526.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2012). Review of the book On Apologising in Negative and Positive Politeness Cultures by E. Ogiermann. Journal of Sociolinguistics 16, 124-127.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2010). Variational Pragmatics: A focus on regional varieties in pluricentric languages. (Eds. K. Schneider & A. Barron, 2008). Review published in Multilingua 29, 119-123.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2010). Acknowledgments: Structure and Phraseology of Gratitude in PhD Dissertations. Review published in Journal of Pragmatics.
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2009). Learning how to request in an instructed language learning context. Linguistic Insights. Studies in Langauge and Communication. Vol. 68. Peter Lang AG. Year: 2008 (Published in the Linguist List).
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Spanish Pragmatics by Rosina Márquez-Reiter & María Elena Placencia (2005). Palgrave, Macmillan. Available in the Linguist List on line at http://cf.linguistlist.org/cfdocs/new-website/LL-WorkingDirs/pubs/reviews/get-review.cfm?SubID=66345
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2004). Gender and politeness by Sara Mills (2003). Cambridge University Press. http://www.linguistlist.org/issues/15/15-262.html
  • Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (with T. Greenslade). (2003). A workbook in everyday Spanish (2003) by E. Santamaría Iglesias. http://www.linguistlist.org/issues/14/14-1890.html
  • J.C. Félix-Brasdefer (2003). Plazas. Spanish textbook for beginning Spanish. Review requested by Prentice Hall. (Book chapter)


Undergraduate courses
  • Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
  • Spanish Phonetics
  • Spanish Applied Linguistics
  • Syntax-Pragmatics Interface
  • Pragmatic Development in a Second Language
Graduate courses
  • Pragmatics
  • Grammar and Social Interaction
  • Conversation Analysis
  • Cross-Cultural Pragmatics
  • Research Methodology
  • The Role of Instruction in Learning Second Language Pragmatics

Honors & Awards

  • Provost’s Award for Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity (2012, 2014)
  • International Travel Grant, Indiana University (http://www.iub.edu), 2005 – Riva del Garda, Italy. Internacional Pragmatics Association (http://webhost.ua.ac.be/ipra/)
  • International Travel Grant, Indiana University (http://www.iub.edu), 2004 - San José de Costa Rica. Programa EDICE (http://www.edice.org)
  • Faculty Grant, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2003 - Project: “Teaching of Pragmatics” (http://www.uncg.edu)
  • Block Grant for Dissertation Research, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Minnesota, 2002 (http://www1.umn.edu/twincities)
  • CARLA Fellow, Center for Advanced Research of Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota, 2000–2001 (http://www.carla.umn.edu)
  • Student Council Representative, Faculty of Philophy and Letters, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Mexico, 1990-1991 (http://www.uatx.mx)

Current research projects

  • The pragmatics of service encounters
  • Pragmatic variation across varieties of Spanish and English
  • Pragmatics and prosody
  • (Im)polite Behavior, Facework, and Power